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# Day 18 - Introduction to Lists

·Jan 24, 2023·

• Python Lists
• List Index
• Accessing list items
• List Comprehension

# Python Lists

• Lists are ordered collection of data items.

• They store multiple items in a single variable.

• List items are separated by commas and enclosed within square brackets [].

• Lists are changeable meaning we can alter them after creation.

Example 1:

lst1 = [1,2,2,3,5,4,6]
lst2 = ["Red", "Green", "Blue"]
print(lst1)
print(lst2)

Output:

[1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 4, 6]
['Red', 'Green', 'Blue']

Example 2:

details = ["Abhijeet", 18, "FYBScIT", 9.8]
print(details)

Output:

['Abhijeet', 18, 'FYBScIT', 9.8]

As we can see, a single list can contain items of different data types.

# List Index

Each item/element in a list has its own unique index. This index can be used to access any particular item from the list. The first item has index [0], second item has index [1], third item has index [2] and so on.

#### Example:

colors = ["Red", "Green", "Blue", "Yellow", "Green"]
#          [0]      [1]     [2]      [3]      [4]

# Accessing list items

We can access list items by using its index with the square bracket syntax []. For example colors[0] will give "Red", colors[1] will give "Green" and so on...

## Positive Indexing:

As we have seen that list items have index, as such we can access items using these indexes.

#### Example:

colors = ["Red", "Green", "Blue", "Yellow", "Green"]
#          [0]      [1]     [2]      [3]      [4]
print(colors[2])
print(colors[4])
print(colors[0])

Blue
Green
Red

## Negative Indexing:

Similar to positive indexing, negative indexing is also used to access items, but from the end of the list. The last item has index [-1], second last item has index [-2], third last item has index [-3] and so on.

#### Example:

colors = ["Red", "Green", "Blue", "Yellow", "Green"]
#          [-5]    [-4]    [-3]     [-2]      [-1]
print(colors[-1])
print(colors[-3])
print(colors[-5])

Green
Blue
Red

## Check whether an item in present in the list?

We can check if a given item is present in the list. This is done using the in keyword.

colors = ["Red", "Green", "Blue", "Yellow", "Green"]
if "Yellow" in colors:
print("Yellow is present.")
else:
print("Yellow is absent.")

#### Output:

Yellow is present.
colors = ["Red", "Green", "Blue", "Yellow", "Green"]
if "Orange" in colors:
print("Orange is present.")
else:
print("Orange is absent.")

#### Output:

Orange is absent.

## Range of Index:

You can print a range of list items by specifying where you want to start, where do you want to end and if you want to skip elements in between the range.

Syntax:

listName[start : end : jumpIndex]

Note: jump Index is optional. We will see this in later examples.

### Example: printing elements within a particular range:

animals = ["cat", "dog", "bat", "mouse", "pig", "horse", "donkey", "goat", "cow"]
print(animals[3:7])    #using positive indexes
print(animals[-7:-2])    #using negative indexes'

#### Output:

['mouse', 'pig', 'horse', 'donkey']
['bat', 'mouse', 'pig', 'horse', 'donkey']

Here, we provide index of the element from where we want to start and the index of the element till which we want to print the values.

Note: The element of the end index provided will not be included.

### Example: printing all element from a given index till the end

animals = ["cat", "dog", "bat", "mouse", "pig", "horse", "donkey", "goat", "cow"]
print(animals[4:])    #using positive indexes
print(animals[-4:])    #using negative indexes

### Output:

['pig', 'horse', 'donkey', 'goat', 'cow']
['horse', 'donkey', 'goat', 'cow']

When no end index is provided, the interpreter prints all the values till the end.

### Example: printing all elements from start to a given index

animals = ["cat", "dog", "bat", "mouse", "pig", "horse", "donkey", "goat", "cow"]
print(animals[:6])    #using positive indexes
print(animals[:-3])    #using negative indexes

#### Output:

['cat', 'dog', 'bat', 'mouse', 'pig', 'horse']
['cat', 'dog', 'bat', 'mouse', 'pig', 'horse']

When no start index is provided, the interpreter prints all the values from start up to the end index provided.

### Example: Printing alternate values

animals = ["cat", "dog", "bat", "mouse", "pig", "horse", "donkey", "goat", "cow"]
print(animals[::2])        #using positive indexes
print(animals[-8:-1:2])    #using negative indexes

### Output:

['cat', 'bat', 'pig', 'donkey', 'cow']
['dog', 'mouse', 'horse', 'goat']

Here, we have not provided start and index, which means all the values will be considered. But as we have provided a jump index of 2 only alternate values will be printed.

### Example: printing every 3rd consecutive value withing a given range

animals = ["cat", "dog", "bat", "mouse", "pig", "horse", "donkey", "goat", "cow"]
print(animals[1:8:3])

### Output:

['dog', 'pig', 'goat']

Here, jump index is 3. Hence it prints every 3rd element within given index.

# List Comprehension

List comprehensions are used for creating new lists from other iterables like lists, tuples, dictionaries, sets, and even in arrays and strings.

## Syntax:

List = [Expression(item) for item in iterable if Condition]

Expression: It is the item which is being iterated.

Iterable: It can be list, tuples, dictionaries, sets, and even in arrays and strings.

Condition: Condition checks if the item should be added to the new list or not.

### Example 1: Accepts items with the small letter “o” in the new list

names = ["Milo", "Sarah", "Bruno", "Anastasia", "Rosa"]
namesWith_O = [item for item in names if "o" in item]
print(namesWith_O)

### Output:

['Milo', 'Bruno', 'Rosa']

### Example 2: Accepts items which have more than 4 letters

names = ["Milo", "Sarah", "Bruno", "Anastasia", "Rosa"]
namesWith_O = [item for item in names if (len(item) > 4)]
print(namesWith_O)

### Output:

['Sarah', 'Bruno', 'Anastasia']